Xiaobian takes you to understand aluminum alloy material

时间:2016-10-19 12:56 作者:admin 点击:
 Aluminum alloy is the most widely used non-ferrous metal structural material in industry, and it has been widely used in aviation, aerospace, automobile, machinery manufacturing, shipbuilding, aluminum alloy and chemical industry.Aluminum alloys usually use alloying elements such as copper, zinc, manganese, silicon, and magnesium. They were invented by German Alfred Wilm in the early 20th century, which greatly helped the development of aircraft. After the First World War, the composition of German aluminum alloy was listed as a state secret.Compared with ordinary carbon steel, it has lighter weight and corrosion resistance, but the corrosion resistance is not as good as pure aluminum.In a clean, dry environment, a protective oxide layer will form on the surface of the aluminum alloy.
    With the rapid development of science and technology and industrial economy in recent years, the demand for aluminum alloy welded structural parts is increasing, and the weldability of aluminum alloy research is also intensified.The wide application of aluminum alloy has promoted the development of aluminum alloy welding technology, and the development of welding technology has expanded the application field of aluminum alloy. Therefore, the welding technology of aluminum alloy is becoming one of the research hotspots.   
    Pure aluminum has a low density (ρ=2.7g/cm3), about 1/3 of that of iron, and a low melting point (660°C). Aluminum has a face-centered cubic structure, so it has high plasticity (δ: 32~40%, ψ: 70~90%), easy to process, and can be made into various profiles and plates.The corrosion resistance is good; but the strength of pure aluminum is very low, and the σb value in the annealed state is about 8kgf/mm2, so it is not suitable for structural materials.Through long-term production practices and scientific experiments, people gradually strengthened aluminum by adding alloying elements and using heat treatment methods, which resulted in a series of aluminum alloys.
Aluminum alloy has low density but relatively high strength, which is close to or exceeds that of high-quality steel. It has good plasticity and can be processed into various profiles. It has excellent electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. It is widely used in industry and its usage is second only to steel. .
    According to the processing method, aluminum alloy can be divided into two categories: deformable aluminum alloy and cast aluminum alloy:
    The deformed aluminum alloy can withstand pressure processing.It can be processed into various shapes and specifications of aluminum alloy materials.Mainly used in the manufacture of aviation equipment, doors and windows for construction, etc.Deformable aluminum alloys are divided into non-heat-treatable reinforced aluminum alloys and heat-treatable reinforced aluminum alloys.The non-heat-treatable strengthened type cannot be improved by heat treatment, but can only be strengthened by cold working deformation. It mainly includes high-purity aluminum, industrial high-purity aluminum, industrial pure aluminum, and rust-proof aluminum.Heat-treatable reinforced aluminum alloys can improve mechanical properties through heat treatment methods such as quenching and aging. It can be divided into duralumin, forged aluminum, super-duralumin, and special aluminum alloys.
    Cast aluminum alloys can be divided into aluminum-silicon alloys, aluminum-copper alloys, aluminum-magnesium alloys, aluminum-zinc alloys and aluminum-rare-earth alloys according to their chemical composition. Among them, aluminum-silicon alloys include hypereutectic silicon aluminum alloys, eutectic silicon aluminum alloys, and monolithic alloys. Crystal silicon aluminum alloy, cast aluminum alloy is used in the as-cast state.
    Some aluminum alloys can be heat treated to obtain good mechanical properties, physical properties and corrosion resistance.
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